FLUORIDE IN DRINKING WATER:
A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards
A 400 page report that reviews all the knowledge up to that time concerning the effects of fluoride in drinking water on organs, tissues and susceptible human populations.
This report predates most of the publications that demonstrate negative effects of ingested fluoride on children’s IQ.
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
In light of the collective evidence on various health end points and total exposure to
fluoride, the committee concludes that EPA’s MCLG of 4 mg/L should be lowered. Lowering
the MCLG will prevent children from developing severe enamel fluorosis and will reduce the
lifetime accumulation of fluoride into bone that the majority of the committee concludes is likely
to put individuals at increased risk of bone fracture and possibly skeletal fluorosis, which are
particular concerns for subpopulations that are prone to accumulating fluoride in their bones.
To develop an MCLG that is protective against severe enamel fluorosis, clinical stage II
skeletal fluorosis, and bone fractures, EPA should update the risk assessment of fluoride to
include new data on health risks and better estimates of total exposure (relative source
contribution) for individuals. EPA should use current approaches for quantifying risk,
considering susceptible subpopulations, and characterizing uncertainties and variability.